Nikola Kalinic and Diego Perotti (twice) got on the scoresheet to turn things around after Gonzalo Higuain's early goal, as Paulo Fonseca's side ended the league campaign on an eight-match unbeaten run - ideal preparation for next week's Europa League meeting with Sevilla.
The Giallorossi take on the Spanish side on Thursday night, looking to reach the last-eight of the competition in the one-off tie.
And they will certainly go into that game in high spirits, having continued their recent run of good form - despite a number of changes on both sides.
There were club debuts for both goalkeeper Daniel Fuzato and academy product Riccardo Calafiori on the night, while Gonzalo Villar was making just his second start for the side in midfield.
Juventus, already champions this season, shot out of the blocks when Higuain converted from close range after just five minutes - but Roma regrouped and responded brilliantly.
Kalinic headed home from a corner soon after to equalise, before a brilliant turn from Calafiori in the box gave Perotti the chance to put his side ahead on the stroke of half-time.
In the second half, it was a scintillating run and pass from Nicolo Zaniolo that created the opportunity for Perotti to get his second; doubling Roma's lead and ultimately wrapping up the win.
The Giallorossi finished fifth in Serie A, ending the campaign with 70 points.
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